A Historical Timeline of the Bible

Table 4a The Kings of Judah and Israel
931 B.C. - 586 B.C.

Solomon dies and the Kingdom of Israel is divided.  Rehoboam becomes the first king of the southern kingdom, Judah.  There are several versions of the chronology of the Kings of Judah and Israel. This one is based on the chronology by Edwin R. Thiele in his book "The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (Third edition ©1983)" which can be readily purchased on the Internet, and subsequent minor adjustments by Leslie McFall in his paper "A Translation Guide to the Chronological Data in Kings and Chronicles (1991)". The most significant adjustment made by McFall was the co-regency of Hezekiah with his father Ahaz from 729 B.C. to March 715 B.C. Thiele, in spite of his brilliant work, never recognized this co-regency in his book.

Update 11/25/2012 - Leslie McFall later made another adjustment to the reigns of the Hebrew kings (8/8/2008) in his document "Chronology of the Hebrew Kings" , the suggestion that Solomon died between Nisan (April) and Elul (August) 931 B.C. was first put forward by Rodger Young, "When Did Solomon Die?” JETS 46 (2003) 589-603.   These adjusments are shown here.

The kings of Israel are marked with **'s on the first chart.

 

Biblical Sequence Kings Official Reign Actual Reign* Coregent King Died
  Solomon         Apr 931-Sep 931
1 Kgs 12:1-14:20 Jeroboam ** 22 21   Apr 931-Sep 931 Sep 910-Apr 909
1 Kgs 14:21-31 Rehoboam 17 17   Apr 931-Sep 931 Apr-Sep 914
1 Kgs 15:1-8 Abijam 3 3   Apr-Sep 914 Sep 912-Apr 911
1 Kgs 15:9-24 Asa 41 41   Sep 912-Apr 911 Sep 871-Apr 870
1 Kgs 15:25-32 Nadab ** 2 1   Sep 910-Apr 909 Sep 909-Apr 908
1 Kgs 15:33-16:7 Baasha ** 24 23   Sep 909-Apr 908 Sep 886-Apr 885
1 Kgs 16:8-14 Elah ** 2 1   Sep 886-Apr 885 Sep 885-Apr 884
1 Kgs 16:15-20 Zimri ** 7 days 7 days   Sep 885-Apr 884 Sep 885-Apr 884
1 Kgs 16:21-22 Tibni **   (6) Sep 885-Apr 884   Apr 880-Sep 880
1 Kgs 16:23-28 Omri ** 12 11 Sep 885-Apr 884    
  Omri **       Apr 880-Sep 880 Sep 874-Apr 873
1 Kgs 16:29-22:40 Ahab ** 22 21   Sep 874-Apr 873 Apr-Sep 853
1 Kgs 22:41-51 Jehoshaphat 25 (3) + 22 Sep 873- Sep 871-Apr 870 Apr-Sep 848
1 Kgs 22:52 - 2 Kgs 2:25 Ahaziah ** 2 1   Apr-Sep 853 Apr-Sep 852
2 Kgs 3:1-8:15 Joram ** 12 11   Apr-Sep 852 Apr-Sep 841
2 Kgs 8:16-24 Jehoram 8 (6) + 7 Sep 854- Apr-Sep 848 Apr-Sep 841
2 Kgs 8:25-9:29 Ahaziah 1 (6 mths) + 1 Sep 842- Apr-Sep 841 Apr-Sep 841
2 Kgs 9:30-10:36 Jehu ** 28 27   Apr-Sep 841 Sep 814-Apr 813
2 Kgs 11:1-21 Athaliah 7 6   Apr-Sep 841 Apr-Sep 835
2 Kgs 12:1-21 Joash 40 39   Apr-Sep 835 Apr-Sep 796
2 Kgs 13:1-10 Jehoahaz ** 17 16   Sep 814-Apr 813 Sep 798-Apr 797
2 Kgs 13:11-25 Jehoash ** 16 (2) + 16 Apr 799- Sep 798-Apr 797 Sep 782-Apr 781
2 Kgs 14:1-22 Amaziah 29 29   Apr-Sep 796 Apr-Sep 767
2 Kgs 14:23-29 Jeroboam II ** 41 (12) + 28 Apr 793- Sep 782-Apr 781 Aug/Sep 753
2 Kgs 15:1-7 Azariah (Uzziah) 52 (24) + 28 Sep 791- Apr-Sep 767 Apr-Sep 739
2 Kgs 15:8-12 Zechariah ** 6 mths 6 mths   Aug/Sep 753 March 752
2 Kgs 15:13-15 Shallum ** 1 mth 1 mth   March 752 Late Apr 752
2 Kgs 15:16-22 Menahem ** 10 10 Late Apr 752-   Sep 742-Apr 741
2 Kgs 15:23-26 Pekahiah ** 2 2   Sep 742-Apr 741 Sep 740-Apr 739
2 Kgs 15:27-31 Pekah ** 20 (12) + 8 Late Apr 752- Sep 740-Apr 739 Sep 732-Apr 731
2 Kgs 15:32-38 Jotham 16 (12) + 4 Apr-Sep 750- Apr-Sep 739 Sep 732-Sep 731
  Jotham   3 Sep 735-Sep 731 to Sep 735  
2 Kgs 16:1-20 Ahaz 16 (3) + 16 Sep 735- Sep 732-Sep 731 c. Mar 715
2 Kgs 17:1-41 Hoshea ** 9 9   Sep 732-Apr 731 Apr-Sep 723
2 Kgs 18:1-20:21 Hezekiah 29 (14) + 29 Sep 729- c. Mar 715 Sep 687-Sep 686
2 Kgs 21:1-18 Manasseh 55 (11) + 44 Sep 697- Sep 687-Sep 686 Sep 643-Sep 642
2 Kgs 21:19-26 Amon 2 2   Sep 643-Sep 642 Sep 641-Sep 640
2 Kgs 22:1-23:30 Josiah 31 31   Sep 641-Sep 640 c. July 609
2 Kgs 23:31-35 Jehoahaz 3 mths 3 mths   c. July 609 c. Oct 609
2 Kgs 23:36-24:7 Jehoiakim 11 11   c. Oct 609 9 Dec 598
2 Kgs 24:8-17 Jehoiachin 3m 10d (10) + 3m 10d Sep 608- Dec 598-Apr 597 after Apr 561
2 Kgs 24:18-25:7 Zedekiah 11 11   Apr 597-Aug 586 c. Aug 586
             
      * Coregency or rival years in ( )      

Table 4aj The Kings of Judah

Biblical Sequence Kings Official Reign Actual Reign* Coregent King Died
  Solomon         Apr 931-Sep 931
1 Kgs 14:21-31 Rehoboam 17 17   Apr 931-Sep 931 Apr-Sep 914
1 Kgs 15:1-8 Abijam 3 3   Apr-Sep 914 Sep 912-Apr 911
1 Kgs 15:9-24 Asa 41 41   Sep 912-Apr 911 Sep 871-Apr 870
1 Kgs 22:41-51 Jehoshaphat 25 (3) + 22 Sep 873- Sep 871-Apr 870 Apr-Sep 848
2 Kgs 8:16-24 Jehoram 8 (6) + 7 Sep 854- Apr-Sep 848 Apr-Sep 841
2 Kgs 8:25-9:29 Ahaziah 1 (6 mths) + 1 Sep 842- Apr-Sep 841 Apr-Sep 841
2 Kgs 11:1-21 Athaliah 7 6   Apr-Sep 841 Apr-Sep 835
2 Kgs 12:1-21 Joash 40 39   Apr-Sep 835 Apr-Sep 796
2 Kgs 14:1-22 Amaziah 29 29   Apr-Sep 796 Apr-Sep 767
2 Kgs 15:1-7 Azariah (Uzziah) 52 (24) + 28 Sep 791- Apr-Sep 767 Apr-Sep 739
2 Kgs 15:32-38 Jotham 16 (12) + 4 Apr-Sep 750- Apr-Sep 739 Sep 732-Sep 731
  Jotham   3 Sep 735-Sep 731 to Sep 735  
2 Kgs 16:1-20 Ahaz 16 (3) + 16 Sep 735- Sep 732-Sep 731 c. Mar 715
2 Kgs 18:1-20:21 Hezekiah 29 (14) + 29 Sep 729- c. Mar 715 Sep 687-Sep 686
2 Kgs 21:1-18 Manasseh 55 (11) + 44 Sep 697- Sep 687-Sep 686 Sep 643-Sep 642
2 Kgs 21:19-26 Amon 2 2   Sep 643-Sep 642 Sep 641-Sep 640
2 Kgs 22:1-23:30 Josiah 31 31   Sep 641-Sep 640 c. July 609
2 Kgs 23:31-35 Jehoahaz 3 mths 3 mths   c. July 609 c. Oct 609
2 Kgs 23:36-24:7 Jehoiakim 11 11   c. Oct 609 9 Dec 598
2 Kgs 24:8-17 Jehoiachin 3m 10d (10) + 3m 10d Sep 608- Dec 598-Apr 597 after Apr 561
2 Kgs 24:18-25:7 Zedekiah 11 11   Apr 597-Aug 586 c. Aug 586
      344 years, 6 months      
      * Coregency or rival years in ( )      

Table 4ai The Kings of Israel

Biblical Sequence Kings Official Reign Actual Reign* Coregent King Died
  Solomon         Apr 931-Sep 931
1 Kgs 12:1-14:20 Jeroboam 22 21   Apr 931-Sep 931 Sep 910-Apr 909
1 Kgs 15:25-32 Nadab 2 1   Sep 910-Apr 909 Sep 909-Apr 908
1 Kgs 15:33-16:7 Baasha 24 23   Sep 909-Apr 908 Sep 886-Apr 885
1 Kgs 16:8-14 Elah 2 1   Sep 886-Apr 885 Sep 885-Apr 884
1 Kgs 16:15-20 Zimri 7 days 7 days   Sep 885-Apr 884 Sep 885-Apr 884
1 Kgs 16:21-22 Tibni   (6) Sep 885-Apr 884   Apr 880-Sep 880
1 Kgs 16:23-28 Omri 12 11 Sep 885-Apr 884    
  Omri       Apr 880-Sep 880 Sep 874-Apr 873
1 Kgs 16:29-22:40 Ahab 22 21   Sep 874-Apr 873 Apr-Sep 853
1 Kgs 22:52 - 2 Kgs 2:25 Ahaziah 2 1   Apr-Sep 853 Apr-Sep 852
2 Kgs 3:1-8:15 Joram 12 11   Apr-Sep 852 Apr-Sep 841
2 Kgs 9:30-10:36 Jehu 28 27   Apr-Sep 841 Sep 814-Apr 813
2 Kgs 13:1-10 Jehoahaz 17 16   Sep 814-Apr 813 Sep 798-Apr 797
2 Kgs 13:11-25 Jehoash 16 (2) + 16 Apr 799- Sep 798-Apr 797 Sep 782-Apr 781
2 Kgs 14:23-29 Jeroboam II 41 (12) + 28 Apr 793- Sep 782-Apr 781 Aug/Sep 753
2 Kgs 15:8-12 Zechariah 6 mths 6 mths   Aug/Sep 753 March 752
2 Kgs 15:13-15 Shallum 1 mth 1 mth   March 752 Late Apr 752
2 Kgs 15:16-22 Menahem 10 10 Late Apr 752-   Sep 742-Apr 741
2 Kgs 15:23-26 Pekahiah 2 2   Sep 742-Apr 741 Sep 740-Apr 739
2 Kgs 15:27-31 Pekah 20 (12) + 8 Late Apr 752- Sep 740-Apr 739 Sep 732-Apr 731
2 Kgs 17:1-41 Hoshea 9 9   Sep 732-Apr 731 Apr-Sep 723
      207 years, 6 months      
      * Coregency or rival years in ( )      

Table 4

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